In attempts to understand personality development, have been developed. Psychoanalytic theory of personality development was founded by Sigmund frauds. This theory asserts that human…. Beck also created considerable time and effort in this decade to build an interactive and visible international community of scholars.
He also worked with colleagues to apply the cognitive theory to stress and anger. This resulted to his popular press book, Love Is Never Enough, which is applied to couples in conflict. Here he discussed how cognitive distortions can operate within close relations and turn love into hate. He also demonstrated….
Login Join. Home Page Personality Theories Essay. Personality Theories Essay Submitted By aservick. Open Document. There are several theorists that made enormous strides in the field of personality theories. Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow are a few of the theorist who shares similar theories though they are from a different view. Sigmund Freud took to his theory of personality from a psychoanalytic perspective.
Freud believed the personality was divided into three dynamic mental structures; the id, the ego, and the superego. The id of personality is made up of biological instincts and urges that seek immediate pleasure and gratification. His exploration into the libido explained human efforts of survival. The ego was said to link mental images with desires, thus overpowering the id with relating urges to reality or physical objects. On the opposite end is the superego.
Freud also had an additional view on personality development. He identified four psychosexual stages; the oral, anal, phallic, and genital stages. He believed that the erotic urges from the id had a lasting effect on the development. He offered several explanations for each stage that can be traced to adult personality traits.
In the oral phase, Freud believed that because infants are pleasured orally it can cause characteristics to form if they are overfed. So examples of these traits are gum chewing, nail biting, smoking, kissing, overeating, and alcoholism. Within the anal stage, he expressed that between the ages of 1 and three a child will focus on a process of elimination.
He further explained that lenient or harsh toilet training can lead to specific adult behaviors such as being stingy, orderly, disorderly, or destructive. In the phallic stage, if a child does not successful identify with the other parent they will become rivals with the parent of the opposite sex.
In the genital stage occurs during puberty Freud offered that the overflow of hormones contributed to an excess of emotions and the need for social-sexual relationships. However, this stage is overcome with the understanding of love and adult sexuality. Jung did believe that part of the personality was the ego. However, he offered a different point of view when thinking about the rest of the personality.
Jung believed that the public self is how one presents themselves to the world around them. According to Coon and Mitterer , Jung saw the actions of the ego may reflect attitudes of introversion or extroversion Chapter Jung introduced the idea of archetypes or original ideas, images, or patterns.
He found that the collective unconscious are conscious memories triggered by emotional events. Unlike Freud, who would see a dream of one dancing with their sister as sexual. Some of the ways in which we behave are basic. These basic behaviors, scientists believe, can determine less basic behaviors. For example, if a person tends to be boisterous and easily irritated, this may stem from a basic excitable personality trait.
Extraversion, those who exhibit gregariousness, friendliness, and assertiveness. Neuroticism, those who tend to be anxious, insecure, vulnerable, or hostile. Openness to experience, curiosity, artistic sensitivity, unconventionalism. Agreeableness, those who exhibit modesty, sympathy, straightforwardness. Conscientiousness, characterized by diligence, punctuality and dependability.
Some scientists also refer to this trait as constraint. There are correlations between these five traits and life outcomes. For example, high conscientiousness has been associated with academic success, and a highly neurotic mien is thought to play some role in the rate of mental disorders and even divorce. Personality theory is grouped in the text according to psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, and biological perspectives. One of the most well-known proponents of psychodynamic of psychoanalytic theory was Sigmund Freud.
Freud felt that human personality was shaped largely by early childhood experiences, the motives and conflicts of our unconscious minds, and on how we cope with our sexual and aggressive urges. He also felt that we had little to no control over our minds or destinies. With that said, out behaviors are just the result of those three components warring with one another.
Lingering frustration of this sort gives rise to anxiety, and the use of such defense mechanisms such as repression, projection, reaction formation, and regression in order to cope with unpleasant feelings associated with this anxiety. Freud also thought levels of human awareness occurred in layers, like an iceberg, with our conscious representing the very tip and interaction with the outside world, the preconscious, just below the surface of our conscious, and our unconscious, where much of our repressed desire, hostility, and forgotten trauma may lie.
We are who we are, in terms of personality, by the age of five, because, Freud postulated, we learn early on how to deal with our sexual urges not so much sex as our need for physical pleasure and go through various stages where our erotic energies are focused at certain periods of time. Alfred Adler felt that personality was driven by a basic need to adapt, improve oneself and master life challenges, or striving for superiority. He used the example of children feeling weaker in comparison to older children adults, and therefore being motivated to learn more and do better, which is something I get to see in action daily with my five year-old.
When we think that we cannot overcome certain challenges, we learn to compensate and develop the ability anyway. However, psychodynamics are not without flaw. Some of the ideas presented are not testable, there is inadequate evidence to support them, and there is a tendency towards gender bias within the school of thought. In earlier chapters of Weiten, behaviorism, or the idea that scientific psychology should concern itself solely with what can be physically observed was discussed.
It appears inform of organized power, theme or status. It is fundamentally a psychoanalytic term found extensively in the works of Carl Jung. Sigmund Freud has been criticized throughout his years for his character and his scientific theories, which his metaphor for describing personality holds truth. Psychoanalysis has three main components that consists of a method of investigating the mind and the way the mind thinks, a set of theories that is systemized about the behavior of an individual, and a method of treatment of the emotional illness and psychological of an individual.
The treatment methods given by Sigmund Freud…. In addition, brand associations help consumers to reflect their mind regarding the past experience they got from the product. Furthermore, brand association help companies to make differential brand from other companies brand products. Brand association has a link with the brand positioning in the market because when the brand is well position in market its difficult to be….
The model is classified in to the biological model, the psychological model and the biopsychosocial perspective. The biological model explains psychological disorders as a result of biological changes in the body. The psychological model is further classified in to psychodynamic view, behaviorism, and cognitive perspective. Behaviorists would say that psychological disorders are learned, while cognitive theorists would explain it as an illogical thinking pattern.
Freud, who is viewed as the father of psychology, developed the concept of psychoanalysis. Within this type of therapy Jung and Adler placed strong emphasis on the subconscious mind and Erikson showed how the drives of the developing mind effects human behavior.
Born and raised in…. Erikson identified obstacles that characterized each stage, and the way the person deals with hurdles at…. This essay will be focusing on the discussion of psychodynamic theory in understanding personality. Alfred Adler is one of the influential figures in the school of psychodynamics. However, his theory of personality is significantly different from Sigmund Freud, who is the father of psychoanalysis and also the first proposer of the psychodynamic theory.
Freud is well known for his topographical model of categorizing personality into consciousness, precociousness and unconsciousness, and emphasis on the libido sexual drive on personality development. Home Flashcards Create Flashcards Essays. Essays Essays FlashCards. Browse Essays. Sign in. Home Page Personality Theory Essay. Show More. Who's Tricking Whom Case Study 1. Read More. The humanistic approach looks at personality while stressing the unique aspects that separate humans from all other species.
The humanistic theory also examines personality in a much more global way. Prominence is placed on the human experience as a whole and the similarities shared, as well as the differences of individuals across various cultures. Behaviors are learned and actions are guided through observational learning, social and cultural norms and influences, behavior modeling, memory of past or similar experiences, reinforcements such as rewards or punishments, and self-regulation The existentialist theory of personality stems from scholars of theology and philosophy who question the deeper meanings of human existence such as who am I?
Striving towards, achieving and accepting authentication of the self is of utmost importance Raymond, n. The dispositional theory of personality examines the individual characteristics and traits of the individual as a pattern and uses this pattern to describe or categorize the individual. As an individual grows and matures, so does the individuals personality.
Genetics set up an individual with predispositions for certain traits and personality characteristics. This could explain why individuals often share personality traits similar to parents or siblings. Biological effects are not the only sources of influence, however. Environmental influences play a major role in shaping personality as well. Individuals may model the behaviors and responses that they observe among their family members, guardians, authority figures and peers. Personality is also shaped through cultural values and societal norms.
Yet if the behavior is frowned upon, the individual may try to conceal or subdue this trait. Neither biological nor environmental factors have a greater influence on the shaping of personality. Instead, it is through the combinations of many factors of influence working together that produce and shape individual behavior and personality. Individual experience gives a person the opportunity to utilize and express the characteristics and traits that are inherent.
Responses follow stimuli, the situation. However, if the necessary situations never occur, the individual will not display or produce the responses or behaviors. Personality clearly epitomizes the uniqueness of the human species. References Feist, J. Theories of personality 7th ed. New York: McGraw Hill. Funder, D. Annual Review Of Psychology, Bonnie Strickland. Detroit: Gale, Gale Virtual Reference Library.
Personality can be measured through observation, test, interviews, and inventories to name a few methods. This assessment is not only used in clinical settings to determine therapy progress, but also in business to help with the hiring process. Another test very popular in the business and education settings is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI where individuals are scored on four dimensions, creating sixteen different types of personality and can be associated with career choices and job satisfaction.
Psychological disorders are behaviors that cause emotional suffering. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, they can describe over psychological disorders. Psychologists use five different perspectives to describe, analyze, and treat disorders. Anxiety disorders are the most common psychological disorders. Anxiety occurs when thinking about future events.
Anxious feelings like panic attacks and agoraphobia are often the cause to seek professional help. An example of anxiety disorders is the obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD where an individual needs to perform a series acts repeatedly to evade the distress of a persistent and involuntary thought. Mood disorders are intense changes in emotions.
The two most common types of mood disorders are depression and bipolar disorder. Paranoid, narcissistic, antisocial, and obsessive-compulsive are some of the types of personality disorders. Psychotherapies are treatments that use psychological resources instead of biological to treat disorders and to help understand our own thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and coping mechanism.
Most common therapies are: — Psychodynamic therapies help to uncover repressed childhood experiences that are currently affecting the individual. Psychoanalysis is the first psychodynamic therapy developed Freud, using free association, dream analysis, and transference. Relation therapies to help improve interpersonal relationships. These sessions are cheaper than individual therapies also providing the members with a sense of belonging and support.
Behavior therapies are treatments to change an abnormal behavior. Biomedical therapies are treatments that use drugs, electroconvulsive, and psychosurgery. It is also interested in impression formation, attraction, attitudes, conformity, obedience, group influences, persuasion, altruism, aggression, prejudice, and discrimination to name a few. Essay Sauce, Personality Theory and Assessment. These Psychology essays have been submitted to us by students in order to help you with your studies.
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This is used to present users with ads that are relevant to them according to the user profile. This cookie registers a unique ID used to identify a visitor on their revisit inorder to serve them targeted ads. This cookie is used for serving the user with relevant content and advertisement. Rogers believed that every person can achieve their goals, wishes and desires in life.
When, or rather if they did so, self actualization took place. This was one of Carl Rogers most important contributions to psychology and for a person to reach their potential a number of factors must be satisfied. Rogers rejected the deterministic nature of both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and maintained that we behave as we do because of the way we perceive our situation.
Famous psychological theorists, Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers , possibly two of the greatest thinkers of our time, both made much advancement in the field of psychology with their theories , clinical evidence, and expertise.
Some views they shared, others they did not. In Freud's view, humans are primarily driven by sexual and aggressive instincts, and seek unlimited gratification of all desires. However, the endless pursuit of pleasure, driven by the id, or unconscious, directly conflicts with society, as the uncontrolled satisfaction of personal pleasure is not acceptable. Social, cultural, religious, and moral restraints are all factors. Freud believed that inherent sexual and aggressive energy, prevented from being expressed, would cause "civilization to be miserable, and the forfeiture of happiness.
Carl Rogers There are numerous personality theories one could choose from in pursuit of an explanation on human behavior. Some theories focus on stages of development, complete unconscious control, or the concept that personality is governed by a pre-disposition directly related to genetic tendencies. Carl Rogers , however, focused his theory , the Person-Centered Theory , on the basis that individuals are self-actualizing and learn and develop in response to current circumstances.
Personalities may vary from situation to situation, behaviors depend on the environment, and also what one finds acceptable socially in those specific situation. Many theorists would agree that personalities can be predictable, while other may think otherwise.
However, one thing everyone seems to agree on is that personality is unique to the individual and is what makes each person interesting. The role of personality in affecting situational behavior Personalities is what characterizes an individual and it is visible through their behavior and their characteristic which is influenced by their environment. Humanistic theorists define personality based on the present rather than the past. Dispositional theorists are more focus on the personality traits of an individual, on what makes them unique.
Carl Rogers and Gordon Allport are some recognized theorist that have studied these two approaches. Rogers approach was focused on healthy development, meaning how the person viewed themselves, where in the other hand Allport focused more on the characteristics of Carl Rogers Carl Rogers is known today as one of the most popular and influential American psychologists and is among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology.
He was one of six children to Walter Rogers and Julia Cushing. His father was a very successful civil engineer and his mother was a housewife, as many women were during this time period. At the age of twelve, Carl Rogers and his family moved to a farm about 30 miles west of Chicago and it was here that he was to spend his adolescence.
Julia Cushing, a devout Christian, had Carl Rogers begin his education in a strict religious environment. Due to his harsh upbringing, Rogers became rather isolated, independent, and self-disciplined. With the ability to read well before kindergarten, it was obvious that Rogers was ahead of his peers when it came to child development. He planned to attend the University of Wisconsin-Madison to study agriculture with undergraduate focus on history and religion, but then switched to religion to study for the ministry.
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